Resources for Parents and Caregivers

Gross Motor Development and Other Tips:

Gross Motor Development

  • There are many changes in your child’s development, especially in the first year of life. Knowing what is expected at each stage can help you prepare as a parent and can help you assist your child in achieving these milestones. Keep in mind that these are approximate time frames for typical development. Every child will progress at their own rate. Some children may gain skills ahead of schedule before mastering all of the skills in a previous age range. If you are concerned with your child’s development, please contact your physician or physical therapist to discuss your concerns

Typical Development

0-1 month

  • Makes jerky, quivering arm thrusts
  • Brings hands towards eyes and mouth
  • Moves head from side to side while lying on stomach
  • Head flops backward if unsupported
  • Keeps hands in tight fists
  • Bends and straightens legs alternately or together

1-3 months

  • Lifts head 45 degrees when on their tummy
  • Brings hands to mouth
  • Follows a moving object or person with eyes
  • Grasps a rattle or finger
  • Swipes at dangling objects with hands

3-6 months

  • Lifts head and chest when on stomach (props on forearms)
  • Brings hands to midline
  • Rolls from side to side
  • Rolls from stomach to back
  • Sits for short periods of time with arm support
  • Improved head control when supported in sitting

6-9 months

  • Rolls from back to stomach
  • Reaches for objects when on their tummy
  • Pivots on their tummy
  • Army/commando crawls
  • Sits alone for brief periods of time
  • Gets into an all 4’s position
  • Stands with support
  • Goes from sitting position to lying on stomach

9-12 months

  • Creeps or crawls
  • Pulls self to standing position
  • Cruises along furniture
  • Stands alone momentarily
  • Pivots and scoots in sitting
  • Take beginning steps towards independent walking

12-15 months

  • Stands without support
  • Walk independently without support
  • Creeps upstairs
  • Crawls up on chairs/furniture
  • Runs

15-18 months

  • Walks up one step at a time with one hand held or holding onto a railing
  • Walks with heel-toe pattern with only occasional falls
  • Go from sitting to standing without holding on
  • Propels riding toy
  • Kicks large ball forward
  • Runs with a stiff pattern

18 months-2 years

  • Walk down one step at a time with one hand held or holding onto a railing
  • Squats to play and returns to standing
  • Jumps in place
  • Walks up and down stairs alone
  • Carries large object or pulls an object while walking

2-3 years

  • Climbs well
  • Kicks a ball without losing balance
  • Balances briefly on one foot
  • Begins to pedal a tricycle
  • Walks up/down steps with one foot on each step
  • Throws a ball both overhand and underhand
  • Jumps off a step with both feet at the same time

4 years

  • Stands on tiptoes
  • Jumps up onto a step
  • Jumps over a small hurdle
  • Hops on one foot 5 times
  • Changes directions while running without losing balance
  • Gallops 10 feet

5 years

  • Stands on one foot for 10 seconds
  • Skips 10 feet
  • Can pedal, steer and stop a bike with training wheels
  • May begin to ride a bike without training wheels