Integrating technology into content, instruction, and assessment can be complex and challenging. As a result, teachers are developing a new form of literacy-a collection of skills, competencies and knowledge that involves more than a single set of knowledge and skills. It is necessary to teach technology within the contexts of what you are teaching (the content) and how you teach (the pedagogy).

In 2006, Mishra and Koehler introduced a framework for technology integration that is based on the following three forms of knowledge:

Diagram showing TPack Model


  • Content Knowledge
  • Knowledge about the subject matter, such as Literacy, Math, or Science.
  • Pedagogical Knowledge
  • Knowledge about processes and practices or methods of teaching.
  • Technology Knowledge
  • Knowledge about the standard technologies and advanced technologies

This framework is called TPACK or Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge. It takes these three main forms and explores how they interact with one another. True technology integration occurs when these three areas work together to create a dynamic learning experience for all students. As a result, these intersections form a new knowledge and new expertise that is different than the knowledge and skills required by each component in isolation.

This new literacy involves re-purposing technology tools for our needs, as most technology tools were not designed for educational purposes.